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观望中的2017年北京二手房市场:成交量同比减半 换房成本增加

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 德国卓伯根家居中国总部将花落湖南湘江 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

中山小榄LED总产值破百亿 首获“国字号”荣誉

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

该声明称,EPIC绝不容忍任何人的欺骗或者侵犯版权的行为,不管他的年龄有多大。
中国外汇储备在今年前11个月中的9个月下降,目前约为3.43万亿美元。投资者抛售人民币资产以保护自己免受贬值影响,而央行出售外汇储备中的美元以遏止人民币弱势。中国利率不断下降,而美联储(Federal Reserve)预计很快将开始加息,也助燃了资本外流。中国外汇储备曾在10月轻微反弹,似乎表明外流已趋于停止。
eccentric
我们要求FlightAware对航班抵达延误情况进行统计,而不是航班出发延误情况,因为有时候,航空公司可以让飞机在空中飞行期间追回地面上失去的时间。
'While RMB is on the rise, currencies from some of China's competitors for tourism, such as Japan, are depreciating, meaning travel to some other Asian countries has been getting cheaper while travel to China is becoming more costly,' Jiang Yiyi said.
制造业PMI降至5个月以来的最低水平,是由于受访企业表示,更严格的环保政策限制了业务扩张。这些政策旨在遏制每年冬天笼罩中国大部分地区的有毒烟雾。
He's lately begun taking meetings with the likes of Marissa Mayer and Rupert Murdoch. (Murdoch is chairman of News Corp, which owns The Wall Street Journal.) Though D'Aloisio's net worth at this point is merely eye-popping, not obscene, in his own youthful way he seems every bit as formidable as relative gray-hairs like 27-year-old Tumblr founder David Karp or 29-year-old Facebook wunderkind Mark Zuckerberg. 'He captivates a room,' says Joshua Kushner, founder of Thrive Capital, an early backer of Summly. 'He is incredibly self-aware for his age.'

The report shows that social media, and especially WeChat, has become more and more popular in the past year among people over the age of 40.
The Warriors are one of the best teams in NBA history, and you can put their championship run up against any team in NBA history for the best playoff performance ever. But there's also a legitimate question of what this means for the sport. If the best or second-best player of all time stands no chance against this team, what does it mean for the sport's competitiveness? It hasn't been a problem so far, thanks to an extremely wild offseason, but the question remains: what happens to a competitive sports league when it's not truly competitive at the highest level?
protocol
你可能觉得夏威夷航空的运营相对容易,因为该公司的航班很少遇到美国大陆那种恶劣的天气条件。夏威夷航空公司在航班准点率排行榜上常年位居前列,在9月份最新公布的榜单上创下最高准点率。夏威夷航空公司最近宣布将把业务拓展到夏威夷岛外,开通从檀香山到北京的直达航班。
中国现代经销商要求赔偿1.35亿美元

Footnotes

  • 9月家居景气指数再度冲高 专家:谨慎对待
  • vi. 打结

10月份,中国社会消费品零售总额增长放缓。另一方面,尽管上月出口走弱,中国规模以上工业增加值和全国固定资产投资增长仍大致保持平稳。
卡尔说:“如果要打赌的话,我赌今年比去年更热。”
But most overseas islands are sold as freehold properties.
答:这是我第一次去旧金山。非常美丽的城市。到那儿的第一天我们就去看了金门大桥。海湾的景色真是让人愉悦啊。我在日本每次看电影,这个城市和这个桥都要被毁一次。但我从不知道这个城市亲眼看的话居然有这么美。下次再来可能就没机会看这座桥了,所以我很高兴这次能看到。
But a friend saw a TV report about it and contacted the sorting office. Mr Siddeeq, 74, says he is still eager to read it, despite now being divorced。
这些包括纳米汽车在内的轻巧设计小得甚至连肉眼都不可见。

技术、商业模式革新 LED照明产业或重构格局

References

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